Wind power and geothermal heat aren’t enough to keep the world cool, according to a new study. Even if energy, transportation, and manufacturing go entirely green, emissions of greenhouse gases from the food system would put the world on track to warm by more than 1.5°C, a target set in the 2015 Paris climate agreement.

For the world to have a chance of preventing significant harm from climate change, the study authors say, all parts of food production need rapid and significant reform—everything from reducing deforestation for new fields to eating less meat. Peter Smith, a soil scientist at the University of Aberdeen who was not involved in the work, agrees. “In addition to a complete transition away from fossil fuels in the coming decades, we will also need a dramatic food system transformation.”

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